Unit 3 Written Assignment, University of the People
The Employee Component dominated various studies on organizational behavior. Of note are these important theories that affect motivation:
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
- McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
- McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
- Adam’s Equity Theory
- Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
- Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory
Select 3 theories and explain how they have increased our understanding of motivation. Compare and contrast their influences on human motivation in the contemporary work setting, Then, choose one theory that best applies to your own personal and developmental journey.
Grade: 78.75/90 (564 words)
❶ Select three theories and explain how they have increased our understanding of motivation.
I selected Motivator-Hygiene Theory, Learned Needs Theory, and Equity Theory. Including these three theories, there are many motivation theories, and they can be divided into two broad categories: content theories and process theories. (Laegaard & Bindslev, 2006) Both types contribute to increasing our understanding of motivation. Content theories(needs theories) focus on revealing WHAT motivates human behavior. Process theories explore How motivation occurs, focus on the processes which influence our motivation. Unlike Process theories, Content theories cannot entirely explain what motivates or demotivates us. (Soós & Takács, 2013) Motivator-Hygiene Theory and Learned Needs Theory are categorized as Content theories, and Equity Theory is grouped as Process theories. Here is a brief explanation of these theories for the following description and analysis of these theories.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
The theory identifies two different factors, Hygiene factors, and Motivator factors, as primary causes of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors in job context affect job dissatisfaction: Organizational policies, Quality of supervision, Salary, Relationships with peers, Status, and Security. Motivator factors in job content affect job satisfaction: Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility, Advancement, and Growth (Robbins, 2005).
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
According to the theory, all people have a combination of needs: achievement, affiliation, and power. Also, individuals possess a dominant need, which is the most important need for them compared to the other two needs, and they need to lead the person’s behavior. (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012).
Adam’s Equity Theory
Equity theory argues that unfairness to the output of the workers leads to demotivating workers. The perceptions of fairness/unfairness are determined by comparing their inputs and outcomes with their colleagues. (Robbins, 2005).
❷ Compare and contrast their influences on human motivation in the contemporary work setting.
Motivator-Hygiene Theory and Learned Needs Theory, which are grouped as content theories, are the earliest motivation theories. Because content theories of motivation focus primarily on individual needs, physiological or psychological deficiencies within the work environment, content theories have had the most significant impact on management practice and policy, while academic circles don’t accept them. (Soós, J & Takács, 2013) While the content theories influence the work environment, the Process theories are key to understanding employee motivation. According to equity theory, employees are demotivated when they view reward distribution as unfair. (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012)
❸ Choose one theory that best applies to your own personal and developmental journey.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory is the best theory for me because it explains my situation well. I am satisfied with my university’s current tasks, such as supporting international students, organizing intercultural events for students, and planning a new international dormitory. Working as staff at university is my aspired job, and also, this job fits me. I perform well, and recent two years, I was highly regarded by my boss, and I got a good evaluation which is given to only above 5% of staff. Salary and other basic security also meet my expectation. Under these right conditions, however, I am always dissatisfied with my workplace because I couldn’t make a good relationship with my colleague, and the quality of the supervision is low. Motivator-Hygiene Theories can explain the reason why my motivation is decreasing. From the theory’s perspective, I can be more motivated and work more efficiently if my working conditions: quality of supervision, and salary relationships with peers are improved.
Robbins, S. P. (2005). Organizational behavior (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Soós, J and Takács, I. (2013)Psychology. Budapest, Hungary. Retrieved from https://regi.tankonyvtar.hu/en/tartalom/tamop412A/2011-0023_Psychology/030300.html
Bauer, T. & Erdogan, B. (2012)An Introduction to Organizational Behavior. (n.p.). Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-behavior-v1.1/s09-theories-of-motivation.html
Laegaard, J. & Bindslev, M. (2006). Organizational theory (1st ed). Ventus Publishing & Bookboon.com.