Unit 8 Portfolio Activity, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 8 Portfolio Activity

Grade: 10/10 (1006 words)


Before answering this question, I thought about authentic leaders in real life. It wasn't easy to find a leader who fulfilled all factors of it. For example, when I searched for authentic leadership, I found politicians with authentic leadership, such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern, the current Prime Minister of New Zealand Land. Many sites mentioned Steven Jobs as an Authentic leader. His clear vision and passion led people to innovate and create one-of-a-kind products. However, we can also find many anecdotes of him abusing his employees in front of their colleagues or taking ideas from his subordinates and treating them as if they were his own. Steven Jobs was a great leader, but I thought his behavior of abusing others because he was too honest in his opinions or too preoccupied with achieving his goals did not meet the factors of an authentic leader.

So, I decided to do a little more research and learn more about Eron Musk, the CEO of Tesla, Inc. Recently I read the news of his adultery, and he has a child with a subordinate. I can't say that adultery is morally right, but I will discuss his leadership, concentrating on whether or not he is ethical in business. 


Elon Musk, an authentic leader

Elon Musk has been very successful worldwide in the mass production of environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Undoubtedly, he has demonstrated authentic leadership and has been successful in business by earning the people's trust and getting the best out of their abilities to succeed in business. Also, he showed his authentic leadership when he responded to a crisis in the organization. According to the Tesla diversity report, Tesla Inc. comprises employees from diverse backgrounds. Black and African American employees (10%), Asian employees (21%), Hispanic and Latino or Latina employees (22%), and White employees (34%). (Kolodny, 2020) The case I will introduce is not mentioned cross-cultural clearly. However, as I described, the employees working for the company have various backgrounds, and this case involves the aspect of cultural leadership and ethics. 

A report described injury rates in Tesla's Fremont factory were dangerously high. Musk responded to the report by emailing his employees as follows. "It breaks my heart when someone is injured building cars and trying their best to make Tesla successful. Going forward, I've asked that every injury be reported directly to me, without exception. I'm meeting with the safety team every week and would like to meet every injured person as soon as they are well, so that I can understand from them exactly what we need to do to make it better. I will then go down to the production line and perform the same task that they perform." (Haden, 2017)  


Evaluation of Musk's leadership with Four factors of authentic leadership

Before I rate Musk, I will introduce the essential factors of authentic leadership. Authentic leadership is composed of self-awareness, balanced processing, relational transparency, and an internalized moral/ethical perspective. According to Vogelgesang et al. (2019), the four components of an authentic leader can be broken down into cognitive, motivational, and active processes, allowing leaders to attain morally grounded cultural adaptation. (Vogelgesang et al., 2009).


Based on his emails, I rate his authentic leadership level relatively high, particularly ethics and personal values. In his email, he expressed his regret and admitted fault for managing safe environments for employees. Also, he proposed a concrete solution to improve the environment. (He asked employees to report directly to him any injury) Throughout the email, he successfully implied Tesla's culture. He indicated that Tesla does not draw a line between managers and employees, and he and managers care about all employees. According to Haden (2017), When a problem arises in a group, many leaders prioritize not worrying the group over the problem itself, letting them know that everything will be okay. They tend not to confront the problem without acknowledging the corporate safety blunder. As I examined Musk against the factors of authentic leadership, his level was higher than my expectation.


My case of authentic leadership

I have had an authentic leadership role. At my workplace, there is a tendency to assign work to subordinates without considering the amount of work they have and their knowledge of the work. Because they could not understand the job, they convey incorrect information to the students who are the target of their services, or they are too busy to deal with the students, resulting in a situation where the students are not satisfied with the services they receive. 

Based on my experience with too much workload, when I assign tasks to my subordinates, I try to ascertain the amount of work they already have and their knowledge of the job. I believe that by talking to them face-to-face for a minute, I can show that I communicate with them as equals and have successfully built a relationship of trust with them. I have been working with them for less than a year now, and I have been able to get my subordinates to do more work than before, and I have created an environment where they are willing to do the work for me when they are available. I believe this is the result of demonstrating authentic leadership.



Through this case, we have learned that Musk is not just a great manager but a person who combines authentic leadership. As demonstrated in this essay, in achieving his lofty goals, he acknowledged that there were problems with his management, apologized sincerely, offered concrete solutions, and worked to regain the trust of his employees. 

I, too, would like to contribute to creating a better society through my work. Self-discipline is essential for achieving my goal, and learning at UoPeople is one step in that direction. Also, I must be confident in my work to be myself for admitting my failures and showing honestly. I want to grow daily to take an authentic leadership role like him and gain the trust of those around me to do a good job.


Cultural intelligence for leaders  (v. 1.0). (2012, December 29). Lardbucket. 

Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/pdfs/cultural-intelligence-for-leaders.pdf

Haden, J. (2017, December 7). This Elon Musk Email to Tesla Employees Is a Powerful Lesson 

in Authentic, Heartfelt Leadership. Inc. Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/this-elon-musk-email-to-tesla-employees-is-a-powerful-lesson-in-authentic-heartfelt-leadership.html

Kolodny, L. (2020, December 7). Tesla publishes its first-ever diversity report revealing 

leadership is 83% male and 59% White. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/12/04/tesla-publishes-its-first-diversity-report-here-are-the-key-numbers.html

Vogelgesang, G., Clapp-Smith, R., & Palmer, N. (2009). The role of authentic leadership and 

cultural intelligence in Cross-Cultural Contexts: An objectivist perspective. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(2), 102-117. Retrieved from  


Unit 4 Portfolio Activity, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 4 Portfolio Activity

Grade: 10/10 (865 words)


My goal

     My goal is to earn a Business Administration Degree at the University of the People (UoPeople). I believe that learning at UoPeople will contribute tremendously to the betterment of my career and my abilities. 

Five things I plan to do to achieve my goal

  1. Make a plan for the completion of the program.
  2. Adjust workload at the workplace
  3. Make learning at UoP a top priority
  4. Learn from classmates
  5. Consider the motivation and benefits of earning an MBA

My mother's perspective

  1. Secure money for the assessment fee
  2. Time management for submitting assignments
  3. Set goals regarding completing courses
  4. Don't neglect my work because of my work at UoPeople.
  5. Don't give up until I achieve my goals.

My friend's perspective

  1. Get up early, and do assignments in the morning.
  2. Stay healthy
  3. Balancing work and study
  4. Improve English language skills
  5. Concentrate on studies

       All three mentioned making plans related to obtaining an MBA and balancing work and study. Others mentioned what they considered important from their respective perspectives. For example, I didn’t think about my health or lifestyle,  while my friend said, "Get up early, “and “do assignments in the morning”. Also, my mother said that "Don't give up until I achieve my goals" is essential, which is similar to the theme of Unit 4, "Self-efficacy. People with higher self-efficacy believe they can overcome obstacles, whether difficult or not. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

       Based on the above answers, I will respond to the following 4 questions. These questions are introduced in Cultural intelligence for leaders as an exercise to help us use mindfulness to accomplish a goal. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)


How would you react if none of your plans turned out as they were supposed to? (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

     I will review my goal and my actions and rebuild my plans. It has already happened this term. This term, I tried to complete two courses for the first time. It was a new environment for me. However, I failed it and withdrew from one course after completing Unit 3. 

     To complete two courses, I made the most significant efforts to increase my study time by stopping making videos(my hobby), completing my work in the shortest time possible, and reducing the number of times I saw my friends. However, I couldn't manage to spend less time interacting with others. I couldn't adapt to the new environment.

What if, in the middle of working toward your goal, the goal changed? (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

     When the goal changes, I will focus on achieving a new plan. If the reason for changing the goal is the result of doing the best I can, then changing the goal is not a problem. Our imagination is limited to making a perfect plan, and we can only know what we do. As stated above, I have changed my recent goal from taking two courses to one course this term. Although the change happened due to my failure, I am optimistic. I believe failures or changes always happen when I challenge a new goal. According to Cultural intelligence for leaders (2012), learning to develop an optimistic perspective will help to improve self-efficacy. Optimism also leads to an improved ability to be resilient to challenges.

If you reached your goal exactly as you planned it, what would you have learned about yourself? (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

     If I earned an MBA at UoPeople as planned, I would learn many things. I will concentrate on answering the content related to this course. I believe that students will have the opportunity to enhance my cultural intelligence by learning with classmates from diverse backgrounds and developing self-efficacy and cultural strategic thinking.

What type of life do you think you would lead if everything went according to your plans? (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

     I believe that if everything went according to my plans, I would succeed in increasing my mindfulness and have a life that is more likely to allow me to achieve "what I want to do." First of all, I believe that by the time I get my MBA, my English skills will have improved considerably, and I will be able to work in English and my native language. I also believe that my ability to work in the workplace will have improved as I adjust my workload. Berrospi (2021) describes that mindfulness can help to achieve success by helping me stay calm under stressful work situations. 


     Through this exercise, I thought about my goals. First, I listed five plans to achieve my goals and asked two people who know me also to list five plans. There were similarities and discrepancies between my plans and those of the others. The plans I had not considered were especially helpful in ensuring that I would be more successful in executing my plans. Also, this exercise taught me that I need to be more specific about my goals. I believe there is a difference between understanding and implementing the cultural intelligence, self-efficacy, and mindfulness we are learning in this course. I will learn new knowledge and skills through trial and error to achieve my goals.


Berrospi, G. (2021, November 8). How Mindfulness Can Help You Reach Your Goals — In Business And With Your Finances. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesfinancecouncil/2021/11/08/how-mindfulness-can-help-you-reach-your-goals---in-business-and-with-your-finances/?sh=651b9236f0e7

Cultural intelligence for leaders  (v. 1.0). (2012, December 29). Lardbucket. Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/pdfs/cultural-intelligence-for-leaders.pdf

Unit 2 Portfolio Activity, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 2 Portfolio Activity


Grade: 10/10 (652 words)


     When we have to learn a new skill for a job, we will experience various unfamiliar things in unfamiliar situations. If we don’t know how to overcome it, we may fail to learn a new skill. For these situations, metacognitive knowledge will help us adapt to unfamiliar environments, and obtain a new skill. 


Case description

     Before starting the discussion, I will define “new skill” because the needed skills depend on jobs, positions, and the workplace. Based on my experience, I define a new skill as “operating a host computer” in my workplace. I assume I just transferred from the international office to an academic affairs office in a private university in Japan, and I have to learn a new skill, how to operate a host computer. Before the transfer, I had never known or used it.

     Following the instructions, I use the metacognitive knowledge concept and describe how I will learn a new skill for my job in 6 months. In Particular, I will describe the details of the learning process, the tasks of learning, and the strategies for my goal.

Metacognition and Metacognitive knowledge 

     Metacognition comprises three core components, metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive regulation, and metacognitive experience. (Global Metacognition, 2020) According to the Cambridge International Education Teaching and Learning Team (n.d.), metacognitive knowledge refers to what learners know about learning. This includes three factors: 

  • learning processes and beliefs about how to learn and how to think others learn
  • the task of learning and how to process information
  • strategies develop and when use them  (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) 

     Based on the above three factors, I will demonstrate how to learn a new skill, operating a host computer in 6 months. 

Learning process

     The host computer has various functions, and I must learn multiple functions depending on the work types. I am good at operating computers, so I am confident I will remember it within 6 months. However, there is one problem. The manual of the host computer isn’t updated for a long time, so some information is incorrect. I have to learn the part of the operation from my colleagues, but in my workplace, colleagues are not used to explaining the operating methods, and their explanation is not enough for me. I feel frustrated when I can’t do my work efficiently due to a lack of description.

Tasks of learning

To complete this task, I need to think about as follows:

  • Identify when I have to operate the host computer for my work?
  • For the first use of a host computer, which kind of operation do I have to use?
  • Does the manual include all functions for the first use?
  • If the manual is incomplete, who is the right person should I ask about it?
  • When should I start learning it to complete the first work by the due date?
  • How long should I take to modify the manual?
  • How long do I have to set aside enough time to complete all the tasks mentioned above?


Strategies for my goal

     During the 6 months, I will operate a host computer to complete various jobs, so I have plenty of opportunities to get familiar with the operations and functions. I assume that it takes more time than usual when I use a host computer for the first time. Therefore, reviewing the tasks stated above and making a schedule is essential before starting learning. Based on my experience, taking extra time is vital for scheduling because we usually experience dealing with unexpected tasks during work.

     Most people feel uneasy when encountering new environments and are required to learn new skills. However, understanding the concept of metacognition helps us deal with the situation. In this discussion, I concentrated on demonstrating how I can learn new skills and overcome my weak points with metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge helps us obtain an objective view and allows us to perform well.


Cambridge International Education Teaching and Learning Team. (n.d.). Getting started with Metacognition. Retrieved from https://cambridge-community.org.uk/professional-development/gswmeta/index.html#:~:text=Metacognitive%20knowledge%20refers%20to%20what,going%20to%20read%20are%20complex')

Cultural intelligence for leaders  (v. 1.0).  (2012, December 29). Lardbucket. Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/pdfs/cultural-intelligence-for-leaders.pdf

Global Metacognition. (2020, March 16). What is Metacognitive Knowledge? Retrieved from https://www.globalmetacognition.com/post/what-is-metacognitive-knowledge

Unit 6 Written Assignment, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 6 Written Assignment

  1. What actions by Jack suggest his self-esteem may be negatively impacted by his diagnosis?
  2. What positive direction might Jack explore to help with the acceptance of his diagnosis? How can he motivate his team to get involved in the process?
  3. Identify the potential causes in Jack disturbance of self-concept. 
  4. How can the behaviors related to self-disclosure and time play a role in helping Jack to accept and live with his diagnosis? What role does communication play in Jack’s overall acceptance? As a leader, how can Jack engage his team in this new healthy lifestyle while respecting his privacy?

Grade: 87.9/90 (734 words)


Case description

Jack is working in a major hospital as a leader. He was eager to meet goals with his colleagues. Also, Jack strives to stay healthy by making efforts such as eating healthy, exercising regularly, and playing basketball team. However, the recent year, he failed to stay fit because of busy work. He was diagnosed with high cholesterol and needed medication to control his cholesterol and lipids for lifelong treatment. Jack was shocked by these explanations from the doctor. Although he wants to make an effort to exercise more and eat a better diet without neglecting his team, he can't find the methods yet. Based on the information above, I will answer four questions.


What actions by Jack suggest his self-esteem may be negatively impacted by his diagnosis?

His angry attitude shows his self-esteem is negatively impacted. He didn't believe the doctor's diagnosis and tore the prescriptions into pieces and threw them in the trash. His cognitive dissonance affects him negatively. 


What positive direction might Jack explore to help with the acceptance of his diagnosis? How can he motivate his team to get involved in the process?

For Jack, there are three things to minimize the impact of the dissonance. First, he must have the courage to acknowledge the possibility that his beliefs and the diagnosis may not be the same. Second, he should find their dissonance by asking himself the following questions: What dissonance is present in his beliefs and behaviors? What gaps are created because of the dissonance? How is this dissonance stopping him from truly understanding the situation? (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) Finally, Jack should work with his teammates to obtain their involvement. He will change his workstyle due to his health condition. Then he has the responsibility to help their colleagues transform their working styles.

Also, here are three questions that impact the teammates in a positive way: 1. What is changing? 2. What will be different because of the change? and 3. Who's going to lose what? To understand the difference, define what will change because of Jack's changes. Finally, employees must let go of their original mindset to make a successful cultural shift. In doing so, it is helpful to ask himself the following questions: 

  • What beliefs and values might I have to let go of?
  • Why is it hard to abandon your beliefs and values? 
  • How well have these values and beliefs served you? 
  • What are the barriers they create for your future?       (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)


Identify the potential causes in Jack disturbance of self-concept. 

The concept of Cognitive dissonance can explain his anger and confusion. Cognitive dissonance is a state of discomfort that occurs by experiencing one's beliefs, ideas, or attitudes that are contradicted by evidence. It is the most uncomfortable for people when people do something inconsistent with their view of themselves. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

As described in the case description, Jack had high self-esteem, backed by the title of leader and the experience of taking good care of his health. However, a doctor's diagnosis showed that he was in poor health. The gap between his self-concept and objective diagnosis caused cognitive dissonance.


How can the behaviors related to self-disclosure and time play a role in helping Jack to accept and live with his diagnosis? What role does communication play in Jack's overall acceptance? As a leader, how can Jack engage his team in this new healthy lifestyle while respecting his privacy?

             Time will allow Jack to ask himself the above questions and help him resolve cognitive dissonance. Self-disclosure has a positive impact on both Jack and his team. Psychologists proved that self-disclosure helps to build intimate relationships. Revealing Jack's motives, intentions, goals, values, and emotions can increase liking and feelings of intimacy and generate greater cooperation and teamwork as well. (Offermann and Rosh, 2012)             

             At first, Jack should resolve the cognitive dissonance that is happening to him and explain to followers the new way he and his team work in the current situation. If Jack receives opposition related to changing behaviors, storytelling helps to obtain staff involvement through a shared vision, goal, or objective. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) For Jack, his poor health may be a fact that he does not want to admit as a failure to take care of himself. However, sharing his experience and accepting his poor health positively changed him and his team.



Cultural intelligence for leaders (2012, December 29). Lardbucket. Retrieved from 


Offermann, L. and Rosh, L. (2012, June 13). Building Trust Through Skillful Self-Disclosure. Harvard Business 

Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2012/06/instantaneous-intimacy-skillfu


Unit 5 Written Assignment, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 5 Written Assignment

People have the tendency to see other cultures from their own point of view. They acknowledge their own culture and its behaviors as the norm—all other cultures are seen as foreign, or even secretive. In ther unit's reading, we look at critical incident analysis (CIA) that helps support an unbiased response to cultural variances by allowing managers to demonstrate empathy related to other points of view. Using the CIA method, describe a situation that you or someone you know has experienced where a cross-cultural misunderstanding took place. A work situation is best, but if you don't have that kind of an example you can look broadly at other situations. 

  • Describe what essentially occurred, and how a culturally sensitive reaction could have been achievable if you or someone you know had used CIA. Look at the theories and suggestions in the readings regarding having success in cross-cultural settings and within your response, explain in detail what can specifically be done to ensure that these behaviors do not take place in the future.
  • Use one of the theoretical frameworks of cultural interpretation (Hofstede, Hall, etc.) presented in our readings and apply their approach to the situation.
  • As a manager, how would you have handled that situation differently? What could you do as a manager to ensure that you are able to adapt to multiple cultures?

Grade: 80.25/90 (652 words)


Case description

Yuna is Korean, born and raised in Japan. Her parents are Korean, so she has a Korean cultural background even though she lives in Japan. For example, in general, Japanese people are shy and fear making mistakes, and few people participate in discussions or express their opinions. Yuna, on the other hand, is an open-minded person who is not afraid to make mistakes, tells her own opinions, and listens to others' views. 

She went to Singapore on an exchange program when she was a student. At the university in Singapore, her open-mindedness increased as she was valued for her willingness to speak up. Later, she worked for foreign-affiliated companies in Singapore and Japan, where she was in an environment that loved her for expressing her own will and thinking for herself. However, after she graduated from college, she found employment in a workplace where colleagues valued Japanese culture. There are about 300 employees. However, she was the only foreigner; the others were Japanese. Most of them were unfamiliar with foreign culture, and some of them indicated that Yuna's open-mindedness was disrespectful behavior.

For example, at a meeting, a director asked Yuna for her opinion on a proposal by him. His proposal "to merge departments A and B" did not seem to be a proposal that would objectively benefit the organization. Since her seniors and colleagues around her also reacted that the suggestion was too subtle, Yuna honestly expressed her opinion. She said, "I don't understand the director's proposal. Would you explain the values of your proposal in more detail?" In response to their opinion, the department head could not explain anything and remained silent. After that, he and Yuna did not speak for about two months, and an awkward mood continued.


The case analysis with Hofstede's framework and Critical Incident Analysis (CIA)

             I will analyze the case based on Hofstede's framework and the questions introduced by Serrat (2010). Hofstede found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture: power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. (Breward et al.,2016) Masculinity and uncertainty avoidance are observed in this case.

  • What were the events or circumstances that led to the critical incident?

Yuna's honest statement of what she thought caused a situation that put the department head in a bad mood. In Japan, masculinity is high. It is common to follow the opinion of one's elders, and no opinion, objective or otherwise, is expected. Her director asked her opinion. However, he didn't want an idea but an agreement.

  • What were the outcomes of the critical incident?

The supervisor misinterpreted Yuna was not polite. Yuna has always valued expressing her opinions, and she said her opinion for better decision-making for the director and the organization.

  • What are the possible future outcomes if behaviors remain unchanged?

By working with other supervisors and seniors and giving her opinions, Yuna may be misunderstood by others.

  • What are the possible future outcomes if behaviors change based on lessons

If Yuna would respect Japanese culture and not speak her mind, Yuna would no longer be misunderstood by her supervisors and seniors, and they could trust each other.


Solution for this case

As a manager, I would handle this situation differently. In this case, the director got angry because of his less cultural understanding. His reaction was based on masculinity and uncertainty avoidance, a typical Japanese response. However, in this actual case, the department was no longer integrated a few months later. In other words, Yuna's opinion was not wrong. Based on this result, it would have been better if the supervisor had been more understanding of the different cultures. He listens to Yuna's opinion instead of being in a bad mood, and if he had had the calmness to think more logically instead of avoiding uncertainty. The director can change his act by improving his CQ.



Breward, K. E., Judge, T., & Robbins, S., (2016). Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 13e, 2016, Ontario: Pearson Canada

Serrat. O. (2010, May). The critical incident technique. Washington, DC: Asian Development Bank.

Unit 4 Written Assignment, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 4 Written Assignment

In Chapter 7 of your textbook, Cultural Intelligence for Leaders, please read the 7.3 Case Study 3: Building a Multicultural Team—Is it Worth it? Please be sure to particularly address the following questions related to the case:

How do you describe Kalia’s self-efficacy? Is she showing levels of high and/or low efficacy? Discuss how her behavior exhibits each level.

How does Kalia’s self-efficacy impact her leadership?

What strategies do you recommend to Kalia to help her improve her cultural intelligence and develop her self-efficacy? Discuss at least two specific development approach.

What suggestions do you have for Kalia in leading her staff to be a culturally intelligent team?

Grade: 85.35/90 (642 words)


Case description

Kalia is a leader of a team consisting of eight members. This team is diverse in terms of age, race, and working experience. Her team members are Caucasian, Hispanic, African American, Asian, and African. The younger employees have less than two years' experience, most members have worked for about10 years, and senior staff has been working for 25 years. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) 

Although it seems the team doesn't have problems, Kalia is aware of employee conflicts, which hinder productivity and success. For example, differences in values between a younger employee, a Hispanic employee, and a senior member are interfering with their work. Robert is a younger employee, and he blamed Ana's working style. Unlike other employees, she doesn't tend to express her opinion in the meeting. A senior member, Margaret, told Robert that her work style is from cultural things. However, he ignored it. Margaret felt her long experiences in the organization is disregarded by Robert. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)


Kalia's self-efficacy

Before discussing Kalia, I introduce the basic concept of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy represents a perception of one's abilities to meet a goal one has set for oneself. People with higher self-efficacy believe they can overcome obstacles, whether difficult or not. It also helps to see the best in people and expect that changes will be positive. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

Based on the concept described above, Kalia failed to show high self-efficacy. She set her goal, and she tried to fix the situation based on her cultural intelligence. However, she couldn't believe herself to solve it, and she felt it was a complete failure. Also, she recognized her lack of skill sets to facilitate the team meeting. It's even worse, and low self-efficacy impacts her leadership. Her employees may disregard Kalia if they are aware of her less confidence. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)


Recommended strategies for Kalia to improve her ability to adapt to the situation

I describe the two approaches for her: 1) improving her cultural intelligence and 2) developing her self-efficacy to overcome conflicts.

      CQ is the "ability to adapt to unfamiliar cultural settings" (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012). The framework for CQ consists of ABCs: Acquire, Build, Contemplate, and Do. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) As the first step, she must learn and use the framework to objectively understand her situation. Next, she will share her knowledge regarding CQ with colleagues. Although the case study focused on the failure of Kalia's self-efficacy and skills, the conflicts in the team occurred due to a lack of employees' CQ. Therefore, sharing the knowledge and discussing the issues based on the framework is essential. 


2) Developing self-efficacy through mindfulness

In addition to practical approaches, like identifying moments of success, teaching and promoting resilience, and providing social role models, I recommend Kalia develop mindfulness techniques. According to Robinson, mindfulness is paying attention to what's happening in the present moment, being aware of what experiencing while  experiencing it, and accepting without judgment whatever arises, whether it is a thought, feeling, or body sensation. Mindfulness helps with stress reduction, focus, and self-awareness: improving engagement and productivity. (Robinson, 2021) 

Through mindfulness, leaders can see the view of a situation, objects, people, places, or ideas. The connection between mindfulness and self-efficacy is such that using mindfulness helps leaders focus on their performance and goals. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)



In this case study, Kalia felt difficulty in solving conflicts happened between colleagues due to cultural differences. At a glance, Kalia's lack of skill and self-efficacy prevented them from solving the disputes. However, I describe the importance of all employees learning cultural intelligence. Alos, to improve her efficacy, I introduced mindfulness. Developing self-efficacy and utilizing the basic framework of CQ leads the team to solve problems and improve their productivity to achieve their goals. 



Cultural intelligence for leaders (2012, December 29). Lardbucket. Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/pdfs/cultural-intelligence-for-leaders.pdf

Robinson, B. (2021. December 2). People Are Incorrectly Using Mindfulness, Research Shows: Here's What Needs Correcting. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/bryanrobinson/2021/12/02/people-are-incorrectly-using-mindfulness-research-shows-heres-what-needs-correcting/?sh=4a8a69c810f7


Unit 3 Written Assignment, BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy (University of the People)

BUS 5211: Managing in the Global Economy, University of the People

Unit 3 Written Assignment

In Chapter 7 of your textbook, Cultural Intelligence for Leaders, read Case Study 4: A New Leadership Culture.  Please be sure to particularly address the following questions related to the case:

  1. How does Kolab’s self-identify influence her ability to lead?

  2. What cultural value dimensions does the organization operate under? What about Kolab? How can Kolab integrate the organization's cultural value dimensions with her own to ensure overall success?

  3. What cultural intelligence strategies do you recommend for Kolab and her employees? How do these strategies benefit the organization?

Grade: 88/90 (553 words)


Case description

Kolab has been a leader in a large, nonprofit organization, IEC, for six months. Kolab has a goal-oriented and achievement-focused attitude which is shaped by her personal experience as a refugee from Cambodia. On the other hand, the previous president working for IEC for 10 years, did not have the strategic thinking and vision to move IEC, even though she was very effective at building relationships throughout the state. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) 

There was a clear gap between Kolab's leadership style and previous ones. These gaps made employees challenging to adapt to Kolab's strategies and her orders. Also, Kolab got frustrated due to the employee's attitude and low-motivated working style. The board of trustees hired Kolab to who can challenge employees and push the organization to reach its financial and fundraising goals. The previous president couldn't achieve the goal under her leadership style. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012)

Kolab's self-identify which influences her ability to lead

Kolab is a task- and goal-oriented person, which affects her to want the organization's culture to move toward accountability, goals, and achievement. It is drastically different from the leadership style and organizational culture familiar to the employees. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) 

The cultural value dimensions of IEC and Kolab

Hofstede studied cultural values on leadership in the workplace. Based on the collected data, he created a model of value dimensions that speak to how cultures tend to operate. His work is helpful to any business doing global and multicultural work. The main dimensions of Hofstede's model are identity, power, gender, uncertainty, and time. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012) 

IEC and Kolab's cultural value dimensions are illustrated as follows.

Dimension of Identity


Individual needs                                                               Group need

Dimension of power


Inequality                                                                      Egalitarian

Dimension of gender


Cooperation                                                                    Competition

Dimension of uncertainty


Ambiguity                                                        Certainty

Dimension of time


Traditions/past                                                             Current of future

The cultural value dimensions of IEC and Kolab are far different.

Proposal for Kolab to integrate the organization's cultural value dimensions with her own 

To achieve Kolab and the organization's goal, she must eliminate the cultural value dimensions gap. As a solution, I propose Kolab and employees improve their cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence is the "ability to successfully adapt to unfamiliar cultural settings" Cultural intelligence heavily emphasizes meta-cognitions, including an individual's artistic consciousness and awareness during interactions with those with different cultural backgrounds. (Kumar et al., 2008) The framework for cultural intelligence consists of ABCs: Acquire, Build, Contemplate, and Do. (Cultural intelligence for leaders, 2012). 

The first step of framework A stands for Acquire Knowledge. Knowledge is a central tenet in intercultural training and unfamiliar cultures, and learning Hofstede's cultural values dimensions is practical knowledge for them. After learning, they can realize the gap between them. After gaining knowledge, Kolab and their colleague can build awareness of their surroundings together. Next, contemplating motivation and ability to work together. Finally, Kolab and its employees can adapt to a new environment. 



In this case study, Kolab, the new boss of IEC, and her employees got frustrated due to gaps in cultural value dimensions. However, they can overcome the situation by utilizing the framework of cultural intelligence, especially by learning Hofstede's cultural value dimensions and objectively realizing the gaps between them. Each step will help them understand each other and achieve the organization's goals.



Cultural intelligence for leaders (2012, December 29). Lardbucket. Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/pdfs/cultural-intelligence-for-leaders.pdf 

The German Way & More. (n.d.). Religion in German. Retrieved from https://www.german-way.com/history-and-culture/germany/religion-in-germany/