Unit 3 Portfolio Activity, 2020 Term2, University of the People
In 1943, psychologist Abraham Maslow wrote a paper, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” which explained how drive and motivation are correlated to the understanding of human needs and behavior. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a motivational theory that proposes that while people aim to meet their basic needs, they aspire to attain higher order needs in the form of a pyramid. This idea is shown in his presentation below:
- Finkelstein [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Research Maslow’s Theory and address the following:
- In brief, describe the theory and how it has increased our understanding of personal and organizational needs and satisfaction. What are the criticisms of the theory?
- Examine the pyramid and reflect on your current situation. Are your motivations dictated by your current needs? Explain.
The Portfolio Activity entry should be a minimum of 400 words and not more than 750 words. Use APA citations and references if you use ideas from the readings or other sources.
University of the People
Drafting and Editing: 4.5 hours (443 words)
1) In brief, describe the theory and how it has increased our understanding of personal and organizational needs and satisfaction. What are the criticisms of the theory?
Maslow classifies human needs in a hierarchy of five basic needs. "They range from self-actualization and esteem needs at the top, to social, safety, and physiological needs at the bottom" (Osborn et al., 2010). "The idea of the hierarchy is to show that needs on a given level must be satisfied before the needs on the next level become interesting" (Laegaard & Bindslev, 2006). This theory is one of the earliest motivation theories, and it recognizes and identifies individual needs. Maslow's theory helps managers to understand the subordinate's needs and motivate them. Also, the idea had the most significant impact on management practice and policy of the organization. (Soós, J & Takács, 2013) However, there are several criticisms regarding the theory. As Bauer and Erdogan, the needs' order can differ depending on the people, and researchers failed to support the arguments. (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012) Also, from a cross-cultural perspective, the theory is criticized. "For instance, social needs tend to take on higher importance in more collectivist societies, such as Mexico and Pakistan, than in individualistic ones like the United States" (Osborn et al., 2010).
2) Examine the pyramid and reflect on your current situation. Are your motivations dictated by your current needs? Explain.
As I explained above, the research shows that the theory has a significant impact on the study. However, the theory is not proven with data. Based on my current situation, I think my current needs do not dictate my motivations. Now, sleeping is the thing that I want the most. I work as a full-time worker at a Japanese university. Usually, I finish my work after 8 PM. I take 90 minutes to go home from the workplace, so I get home around 10 PM. Then, I start doing my homework of "Organizational Behavior." In this situation, my sleeping hours are decreasing. I sleep only 3 or 4 hours on weekdays. Also, to do my assignments, I get more time to see a PC screen and a smartphone, so my eyes get tired, and I have a headache. If I follow Maslow's theory, I have to prioritize going to bed to satisfy the physiological needs located at the bottom of the pyramid. However, I do my best to study this course to achieve my goal: contributing to the university where I am working for and improving this society. I can't satisfy the lowest needs of Maslow's pyramid, however I am motivated to achieve my goal, categorized as self-actualization needs, which are the pyramid's top needs.
Bauer, T. & Erdogan, B. (2012)An Introduction to Organizational Behavior. (n.p.). Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-behavior-v1.1/s09-theories-of-motivation.html
Laegaard, J. & Bindslev, M. (2006). Organizational theory (1st ed). Ventus Publishing & Bookboon.com.
Osborn, R., Hunt, J. Uhl-Bien, M & Schermerhorn, J. (2010) Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Soós, J and Takács, I. (2013)Psychology. Budapest, Hungary. Retrieved from https://regi.tankonyvtar.hu/en/tartalom/tamop412A/2011-0023_Psychology/030300.html